Extrait de la Constitution de l'Etat d'Utah - Constitution of the State of Utah
Constitution of the State of UtahPREAMBLE
Grateful to Almighty God for life and liberty, we, the people of Utah, in order to secure and
perpetuate the principles of free government, do ordain and establish this CONSTITUTION.
DECLARATION OF RIGHTS
Section 1. [Inherent and inalienable rights.] All men have the inherent and inalienable right to enjoy and defend their lives and liberties; to acquire, possess and protect property; to worship according to the dictates of their consciences; to assemble peaceably, protest against wrongs, and petition for redress of grievances; to communicate freely their thoughts and opinions, being responsible for the abuse of that right.
Sec. 2. [All political power inherent in the people.] All political power is inherent in the people; and all free governments are founded on their authority for their equal protection and benefit, and they have the right to alter or reform their government as the public welfare may require.
Sec. 3. [Utah inseparable from the Union.] The State of Utah is an inseparable part of the Federal Union and the Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the land.
Sec. 4. [Religious liberty.] The rights of conscience shall never be infringed. The State shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; no religious test shall be required as a qualification for any office of public trust or for any vote at any election; nor shall any person be incompetent as a witness or juror on account of religious belief or the absence thereof. There shall be no union of Church and State, nor shall any church dominate the State or interfere with its functions. No public money or property shall be appropriated for or applied to any religious worship, exercise or instruction, or for the support of any ecclesiastical establishment. No property qualification shall be required of any person to vote, or hold office, except as provided in this Constitution.
Sec. 5. [Habeas corpus.] The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless, in case of rebellion or invasion, the public safety requires it.
Sec. 6. [Right to bear arms.] The people have the right to bear arms for their security and defense, but the Legislature may regulate the exercise of this right by law.
Sec. 7. [Due process of law.] No person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property, without due process of law.
Sec. 8. [Offenses bailable.] All prisoners shall be bailable by sufficient sureties, except for capital offenses when the proof is evident or the presumption strong.
Sec. 9. [Excessive bail and fines. Cruel punishments.] Excessive bail shall not be required; excessive fines shall not be imposed; nor shall cruel and unusual punishments be inflicted. Persons arrested or imprisoned shall not be treated with unnecessary rigor.
Sec. 10. [Trial by jury.] In capital cases the right of trial by jury shall remain inviolate. In courts of general jurisdiction, except in capital cases, a jury shall consist of eight jurors. In courts of inferior jurisdiction a jury shall consist of four jurors. In criminal cases the verdict shall be unanimous. In civil cases three-fourths of the jurors may find a verdict. A jury in civil cases shall be waived unless demanded.
Sec. 11. [Courts open. Redress of injuries.] All courts shall be open, and every person, for an injury done to him in his person, property or reputation, shall have remedy by due course of law, which shall be administered without denial or unnecessary delay; and no person shall be barred from prosecuting or defending before any tribunal in this State, by himself or counsel, any civil cause to which he is a party.
Sec. 12. [Rights of accused persons.] In criminal prosecutions the accused shall have the right to appear and defend in person and by counsel, to demand the nature and cause of the accusation against him, to have a copy thereof, to testify in his own behalf, to be confronted by the witnesses against him, to have compulsory process to compel the attendance of witnesses in his own behalf, to have a speedy public trial by an impartial jury of the county or district in which the offense is alleged to have been committed, and the right to appeal in all cases. In no instance shall any accused person, before final judgment, be compelled to advance money or fees to secure the rights herein guaranteed. The accused shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself; a wife shall not be compelled to testify against her husband, nor a husband against his wife, nor shall any person be twice put in jeopardy for the same offense.
Sec. 13. [Prosecution by information or indictment. Grand jury.] Offenses heretofore required to be prosecuted by indictment, shall be prosecuted by information after examination and commitment by a magistrate, unless the examination be waived by the accused with the consent of the State, or by indictment, with or without such examination and commitment. The grand jury shall consist of seven persons, five of whom must concur to find an indictment; but no grand jury shall be drawn or summoned unless in the opinion of the judge of the district, public interest demands it.
Sec. 14. [Unreasonable searches forbidden. Issuance of warrant.] The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures shall not be violated; and no warrant shall issue but upon probable cause supported by oath or affirmation, particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person or thing to be seized.
Sec. 15. [Freedom of speech and of the press. Libel.] No law shall be passed to abridge or restrain the freedom of speech or of the press. In all criminal prosecutions for libel the truth may be given in evidence to the jury; and if it shall appear to the jury that the matter charged as libelous is true, and was published with good motives, and for justifiable ends, the party shall be acquitted; and the jury shall have the right to determine the law and the fact.
Sec. 16. [No imprisonment for debt. Exception.] There shall be no imprisonment for debt except in cases of absconding debtors.
Sec. 17. [Elections to be free. Soldiers voting.] All elections shall be free, and no power, civil or military, shall at any time interfere to prevent the free exercise of the right of suffrage. Soldiers, in time of war, may vote at their post of duty, in or out of the State, under regulations to be prescribed by law.
Sec. 18. [Attainder. Ex post facto laws. Impairing contracts.] No bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed.
Sec. 19. [Treason defined. Proof.] Treason against the State shall consist only in levying war against it, or in adhering to its enemies or in giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act.
Sec. 20. [Military subordinate to the civil power.] The military shall be in strict subordination to the civil power, and no soldier in time of peace, shall be quartered in any house without the consent of the owner; nor in time of war except in a manner to be prescribed by law.
Sec. 21. [Slavery forbidden.] Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within this State.
Sec. 22. [Private property for public use.] Private property shall not be taken or damaged for public use without just compensation.
Sec. 23. [Irrevocable franchises forbidden.] No law shall be passed granting irrevocably any franchise, privilege or immunity.
Sec. 24. [Uniform operation of laws.] All laws of a general nature shall have uniform operation.
Sec. 25. [Rights retained by people.] This enumeration of rights shall not be construed to impair or deny others retained by the people.
Sec. 26. [Provisions mandatory and prohibitory.] The provisions of this Constitution are mandatory and prohibitory, unless by express words they are declared to be otherwise.
Sec. 27. [Fundamental rights.] Frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is essential to the security of individual rights and the perpetuity of free government.
Section 1. [State boundaries.] The boundaries of the State of Utah shall be as follows: Beginning at a point formed by the intersection of the thirty-second degree of longitude west from Washington, with the thirty-seventh degree of north latitude; thence due west along said thirty-seventh degree of north latitude to the intersection of the same with the thirty-seventh degree of longitude west from Washington; thence due north along said thirty-seventh degree of east longitude to the intersection of the same with the forty-second degree of north latitude; thence due east along said forty-second degree of north latitude to the intersection of the same with the thirty-fourth degree of longitude west from Washington; thence due south along said thirty-fourth degree of west longitude to the intersection of the same with the forty-first degree of north latitude; thence due east along said forty-first degree of north latitude to the intersection of the same with the thirty-second degree of longitude west from Washington; thence due south along said thirty-second degree of west longitude to the place of beginning.
The following ordinance shall be irrevocable without the consent of the United States and the
people of this State:
[Religious toleration. Polygamy forbidden.] First:--Perfect toleration of religious sentiment is guaranteed. No inhabitant of this State shall ever be molested in person or property on account of his or her mode of religious worship; but polygamous or plural marriages are forever prohibited.
[Right to public domain disclaimed. Taxation of lands. Exemptions.] Second:--The people inhabiting this State do affirm and declare that they forever disclaim all right and title to the unappropriated public lands lying within the boundaries hereof, and to all lands lying within said limits owned or held by any Indian or Indian tribes, and that until the title thereto shall have been extinguished by the United States, the same shall be and remain subject to the disposition of the United States, and said Indian lands shall remain under the absolute jurisdiction and control of the Congress of the United States. The lands belonging to citizens of the United States, residing without this State shall never be taxed at a higher rate than the lands belonging to residents of this State; nor shall taxes be imposed by this State on lands or property herein, belonging to or which may hereafter be purchased by the United States or reserved for its use; but nothing in this ordinance shall preclude this state from taxing, as other lands are taxed, any lands owned or held by any Indian who has severed his tribal relations, and has obtained from the United States or from any person, by patent or other grant, a title thereto, save and except such lands as have been or may be granted to any Indian or Indians under any act of Congress, containing a provision exempting the lands thus granted from taxation, which last mentioned lands shall be exempt from taxation so long, and to such extent, as is or may be provided in the act of Congress granting the same.
[Territorial debts assumed.] Third:--All debts and liabilities of the Territory of Utah, incurred by authority of the Legislative Assembly thereof, are hereby assumed and shall be paid by this State.
[Free, nonsectarian schools.] Fourth:--The Legislature shall make laws for the establishment and maintenance of a system of public schools, which shall be open to all the children of the State and be free from sectarian control.
ELECTIONS AND RIGHT OF SUFFRAGE
Section 1. [Equal political rights.] The rights of citizens of the State of Utah to vote and hold office shall not be denied or abridged on account of sex. Both male and female citizens of this State shall enjoy equally all civil, political and religious rights and privileges.
Sec. 2. [Qualifications to vote.] Every citizen of the United States, of the age of twenty-one years and upwards, who shall have been a citizen for ninety days, and shall have resided in the State or Territory one year, in the county four months, and in the precinct sixty days next preceding any election, shall be entitled to vote at such election except as herein otherwise provided.
Sec. 3. [Electors: immunity from arrest.] In all cases except those of treason, felony or breach of the peace, electors shall be privileged from arrest on the days of election, during their attendance at elections, and going to and returning therefrom.
Sec. 4. [Id. From militia duty.] No elector shall be obliged to perform militia duty on the day of election except in time of war or public danger.
Sec. 5. [Electors to be citizens of U.S.] No person shall be deemed a qualified elector of this State unless such person be a citizen of the United States.
Sec. 6. [Certain criminals, etc., ineligible to vote.] No idiot, insane person or person convicted of treason, or crime against the elective franchise, unless restored to civil rights, shall be permitted to vote at any election, or be eligible to hold office in this State.
Sec. 7. [Property qualification forbidden, when.] Except in elections levying a special tax or creating indebtedness, no property qualification shall be required for any person to vote or hold office.
Sec. 8. [Ballot to be secret.] All elections shall be by secret ballot. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prevent the use of any machine or mechanical contrivance for the purpose of receiving and registering the votes cast at any election: Provided, That secrecy in voting be preserved.
Sec. 9. [Elections, when held. Terms begin, when.] All general elections, except for municipal and school officers, shall be held on the Tuesday next following the first Monday in November of the year in which the election is held. Special elections may be held as provided by law. The terms of all officers elected at any general election, shall commence on the first Monday in January next following the date of their election. Municipal and School officers shall be elected at such time as may be provided by law.
Sec. 10. [Oath of office.] All officers made elective or appointive by this Constitution or by the laws made in pursuance thereof, before entering upon the duties of their respective offices, shall take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support, obey and defend the Constitution of the United States and the Constitution of this State, and that I will discharge the duties of my office with fidelity."
DISTRIBUTION OF POWERS
Section 1. [Three departments of government.] The powers of the government of the State of Utah shall be divided into three distinct departments, the Legislative, the Executive, and the Judicial; and no person charged with the exercise of powers properly belonging to one of these departments, shall exercise any functions appertaining to either of the others, except in the cases herein expressly directed or permitted.
Section 1. [Power vested in senate and house.] The Legislative power of the State shall be vested in a Senate and House of Representatives, which shall be designated The Legislature of the State of Utah.
Sec. 2. [Time of regular sessions.] Regular Sessions of the Legislature shall be held bi-ennially at the seat of government; and, except the first session thereof shall begin on the second Monday in January next after the election of members of the House of Representatives.
Sec. 3. [Members, how and when chosen.] The members of the House of Representatives, after the first election, shall be chosen by the qualified electors of the respective representative districts, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November, 1896, and biennially thereafter. Their term of office shall be two years, from the first day of January next after their election.
Sec. 4. [Senators, how and when chosen.] The senators shall be chosen by the qualified electors of the respective senatorial districts, at the same times and places as members of the House of Representatives, and their term of office shall be four years from the first day of January next after their election: Provided, That the senators elected in 1896 shall be divided by lot into two classes as nearly equal as may be; seats of senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of two years, and those of the second class at the expiration of four years; so that one-half, as nearly as possible, shall be chosen biennially thereafter. In case of increase in the number of senators, they shall be annexed by lot to one or the other of the two classes, so as to keep them nearly equal as practicable.
Sec. 5. [Who eligible as legislator.] No person shall be eligible to the office of senator or representative, who is not a citizen of the United States, twenty-five years of age, a qualified voter in the district from which he is chosen, a resident for three years of the State, and for one year of the district from which he is elected.
Sec. 6. [Who ineligible.] No person holding any public office of profit or trust under authority of the United States, or of this State, shall be a member of the Legislature: Provided, That appointments in the State Militia, and the offices of notary public, justice of the peace, United States commissioner, and postmaster of the fourth class, shall not, within the meaning of this section, be considered offices of profit or trust.
Sec. 7. [Ineligibility of member to office created, etc.] No member of the Legislature, during the term for which he was elected, shall be appointed or elected to any civil office of profit under this State, which shall have been created, or the emoluments of which shall have been increased, during the term for which he was elected.
Sec. 8. [Privilege from arrest.] Members of the Legislature, in all cases except treason, felony or breach of the peace, shall be privileged from arrest during each session of the Legislature, for fifteen days next preceding each session, and in returning therefrom; and for words used in any speech or debate in either house, they shall not be questioned in any other place.
Sec. 9. [Compensation of members.] The members of the Legislature shall receive such per diem and mileage as the Legislature may provide, not exceeding four dollars per day, and ten cents per mile for the distance necessarily traveled going to and returning from the place of meeting on the most usual route, and they shall receive no other pay or perquisite.
Sec. 10. [Each house to judge of election, etc., of its members. Expulsion.] Each house shall be the judge of the election and qualifications of its members, and may punish them for disorderly conduct, and with the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members elected, expel a member for cause.
Sec. 11. [Majority is quorum. Attendance compelled.] A majority of the members of each house shall constitute a quorum to transact business, but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may compel the attendance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties as each house may prescribe.
Sec. 12. [Rules. Choosing officers.] Each house shall determine the rules of its proceedings and choose its own officers and employees.
Sec. 13. [Elections to fill vacancies.] The Governor shall issue writs of election to fill vacancies that may occur in either house of the Legislature.
Sec. 14. [Journals. Yeas and nays.] Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, which, except in case of executive sessions, shall be published, and the yeas and nays on any question, at the request of five members of such house, shall be entered upon the journal.
Sec. 15. [Sessions to be public. Adjournments.] All sessions of the Legislature, except those of the Senate while sitting in executive session, shall be public; and neither house, without the consent of the other, shall adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other place than that in which it may be holding session.
Sec. 16. [Duration of sessions.] No regular session of the Legislature (except the first, which may sit ninety days) shall exceed sixty days, except in cases of impeachment. No special session shall exceed thirty days, and in such special session, or when a regular session of the Legislature trying cases of impeachment exceeds sixty days, the members shall receive for compensation only the usual per diem and mileage.
Sec. 17. [Impeachment by house.] The House of Representatives shall have the sole power of impeachment, but in order to impeach, two-thirds of all the members elected must vote therefor.
Sec. 18. [Id. Trial by Senate.] All impeachments shall be tried by the Senate, and senators, when sitting for that purpose, shall take oath or make affirmation to do justice according to the law and the evidence. When the Governor is on trial, the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court shall preside. No person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two-thirds of the senators elected.
Sec. 19. [Id. Judgment. Prosecution by law.] The Governor and other State and Judicial officers, except justices of the peace, shall be liable to impeachment for high crimes, misdemeanors, or malfeasance in office; but judgment in such cases shall extend only to removal from office and disqualification to hold any office of honor, trust or profit in the State. The party, whether convicted or acquitted, shall, nevertheless, be liable to prosecution, trial and punishment according to law.
Sec. 20. [Id. Service of articles.] No person shall be tried on impeachment, unless he shall have been served with a copy of the articles thereof, at least ten days before the trial, and after such service he shall not exercise the duties of his office until he shall have been acquitted.
Sec. 21. [Removal of officers.] All officers not liable to impeachment shall be removed for any of the offenses specified in this article, in such manner as may be provided by law.
Sec. 22. [Enacting clause. Passage and amendments of law.] The enacting clause of every law shall be: "Be it enacted by the Legislature of the State of Utah," and no bill or joint resolution shall be passed, except with the assent of the majority of all the members elected to each house of the Legislature and after it has been read three times. The vote upon the final passage of all bills shall be by yeas and nays; and no law shall be revised or amended by reference to its title only; but the act as revised, or section amended, shall be re-enacted and published at length.
Sec. 23. [Bill to contain only one subject.] Except general appropriation bills, and bills for the codification and general revision of laws, no bill shall be passed containing more than one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its title.
Sec. 24. [Presiding officers to sign bills.] The presiding officer of each house, in the presence of the house over which he presides, shall sign all bills and joint resolutions passed by the Legislature, after their titles have been publicly read immediately before signing, and the fact of such signing shall be entered upon the journal.
Sec. 25. [When acts take effect.] All acts shall be officially published, and no act shall take effect until so published; nor until sixty days after the adjournment of the session at which it passed, unless the Legislature by a vote of two-thirds of all the members elected to each house, shall otherwise direct.
Sec. 26. [Enumeration of private laws forbidden.] The Legislature is prohibited from enacting any private or special laws in the following cases:
1. Granting divorce.
2. Changing the names of persons or places, or constituting one person the heir-at-law of another.
3. Locating or changing county seats.
4. Regulating the jurisdiction and duties of Justices of the Peace.
5. Punishing crimes and misdemeanors.
6. Regulating the practice of courts of justice.
7. Providing for a change of venue in civil or criminal actions.
8. Assessing and collecting taxes.
9. Regulating the interest on money.
10. Changing the law of descent or succession.
11. Regulating county and township affairs.
12. Incorporating cities, town or villages; changing or amending the charter of any city, town or village; laying out, opening, vacating or altering town plats, highways, streets, wards, alleys or public grounds.
13. Providing for sale or mortgage of real estate belonging to minors or others under disability.
14. Authorizing persons to keep ferries across streams within the State.
15. Remitting fines, penalties or forfeitures.
16. Granting to an individual, association or corporation any privilege, immunity or franchise.
17. Providing for the management of common schools.
18. Creating, increasing or decreasing fees, percentages or allowances of public officers during the term for which said officers are elected or appointed.
The Legislature may repeal any existing special law relating to the foregoing subdivisions.
In all cases where a general law can be applicable, no special law shall be enacted.
Nothing in this section shall be construed to deny or restrict the power of the legislature to establish and regulate the compensation of fees of county and township officers; to establish and regulate the rates of freight, passage, toll and charges of railroads, toll roads, ditch, flume and tunnel companies, incorporated under the laws of the State or doing business therein.
Sec. 27. [Legislature cannot release certain debts.] The Legislature shall have no power to release or extinguish, in whole or in part, the indebtedness, liability or obligation of any corporation or person to the state, or to any municipal corporation therein.
Sec. 28. [Lotteries forbidden.] The Legislature shall not authorize any game of chance, lottery or gift enterprise under any pretense or for any purpose.
Sec. 29. [Municipal powers not to be delegated.] The legislature shall not delegate to any special commission, private corporation or association, any power to make, supervise or interfere with any municipal improvement, money, property or effects, whether held in trust or otherwise, to levy taxes, to select a capitol site, or to perform any municipal functions.
Sec. 30. [Extra compensation to officers and contractors forbidden.] The Legislature shall have no power to grant, or authorize any county or municipal authority to grant, any extra compensation, fee or allowance to any public officer, agent, servant or contractor, after service has been rendered or a contract has been entered into and performed in whole or in part, nor pay or authorize the payment of any claim hereafter created against the State, or any county or municipality of the State, under any agreement or contract made without authority of law: Provided, That this section shall not apply to claims incurred by public officers in the execution of the laws of the State.
Sec. 31. [Lending public credit forbidden.] The Legislature shall not authorize the State, or any county, city, town, township, district or other political subdivision of the State to lend its credit or subscribe to stock or bonds in aid of any railroad, telegraph or other private individual or corporate enterprise or undertaking.